نقش اشتیاق کاری در رابطه کامیابی در کار با تعهد به تدریس، رضایت شغلی و احساس تعلق شغلی: ارائه ی الگوی خودگردان

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای روانشناسی صنعتی و سازمانی دانشگاه اصفهان

2 استاد گروه روان شناسی دانشگاه اصفهان

چکیده

هدف: کامیابی در کار، از پایه ­های نوین مفهومی در روانشناسی سازمانی مثبت است. داشتن انرژی و تمایل در به کارگیری دانش و مهارت در انجام وظایف شغلی(کامیابی) از عوامل مهم زمینه­ساز در ارتقای نگرش­های شغلی است. پژوهش حاضر، به تبیین نقش اشتیاق کاری در رابطه کامیابی در کار و نگرش­های شغلی معلمان، شامل تعهد به تدریس، رضایت شغلی و احساس تعلق شغلی پرداخته است.روش: نمونه پژوهش حاضر،130 زن شاغل در  مدارس دولتی متوسطه دوم شهر اصفهان بوده که به روش خوشه ­ای انتخاب شده ­اند. پرسشنامه­های پژوهش حاضر این موارد بوده ­اند: پرسشنامه کامیابی در کار(پوراث و همکاران، 2011)، پرسشنامه اشتیاق معلم(کلاسن، یردلن و دورکسن ، 2013)، پرسشنامه رضایت شغلی معلم(پوماکی و همکاران، 2010)، پرسشنامه تعهد معلم(چان و همکاران، 2008) و پرسشنامه احساس تعلق به مدرسه(اسکالویک و اسکالویک، 2011). پایایی ابزارها، با روش انسجام درونی ابزار مورد تایید قرار گرفت. داده­ های جمع­ آوری شده با استفاده از نرم ­افزار SPSS-20 و AMOS-20، تحلیل شدند.یافته­ ها: نتایج آماری حاکی از لزوم استفاده از آزمون حداکثر درست نمایی(ML) در روش درست نمایی مقاوم ساتورا بنتلر  بود. نتایج تحلیل خودگردان در الگوی نهایی پژوهش حاکی از برازش مناسب الگوی نهایی بود. در این الگو، رابطه غیر مستقیم بین کامیابی و نگرش­های شغلی با حضور اشتیاق معلم معنادار بود.نتیجه ­گیری: نتایج پژوهش حاضر، لزوم سرمایه­ گذاری در ایجاد شور و شوق در معلمان به عنوان تربیت ­کنندگان نسل آینده را در راستای بهبود نگرش­ های شغلی جریان­ ساز همچون تعهد به تدریس، رضایت شغلی و احساس تعلق شغلی نشان می­ دهد. اگر انرژی و تمایل به کارگیری آموزه ­های دانشگاهی در کار(کامیابی در کار) با احساس برانگیختگی و عواطف مثبت شناختی، اجتماعی و هیجانی(اشتیاق معلم) همراه شود، می­تواند سبب ایجاد نگرش ­هایی همچون تعلق خاطر و تعهد و افتخار به شغل معلمی گردد که تاثیرات آن در محیط­ های آموزشی قابل مشاهده خواهد بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Role Of Work Engagement In Relation Between Thriving At Work With Teaching Commitment, Job Satisfaction And feeling Of Belonging: Offering Bootstrapping Model

نویسندگان [English]

  • hajar massah 1
  • SayyedHamidReza Oreyzi Samani 2
  • Mehrdad Kalantari 2
1 PhD Student of Psychology
2 Professor of Psychology
چکیده [English]

Aim: Thriving at work is the modern conceptual basis of positive organizational psychology. Having energy and interest in using knowledge and skills at doing job task is underling factor for promote job attitudes. Present study investigate the role of work engagement in relation between thriving at work on job attitudes; that job attitudes consist of teaching commitment, job satisfaction and feeling of belonging.
Method: The sample of research were 130 women teachers of Isfahan in high school that selected by cluster sampling method. Name of questionnaires are: Thriving at work questionnaire, Teacher Engagement Scale, teacher satisfaction questionnaire, teacher commitment, feeling of belongings questionnaire. In this study validity of questionnaires were shown with Cronbach's alpha. Data analysis with SPSS-20 and AMOS-20. Statistical results showed that the use of ML test method was Robust Maximum Likelihood.
Results: The results of Bootstrapping analysis showed good fitness of final model. This model confirm indirect relation between thriving at work and teacher’s job attitudes with presence of teacher engagement.
Conclusion: The findings support the necessity of investment to create enthusiasm and engagement among teachers as trainers of next generation in improving major job attitudes such as teaching commitment, job satisfaction and feeling of belonging. If energy and tendency to apply educational training (thriving at work) associated with motivation and positive cognitive-emotional affect (teacher engagement) can lead to attitude such as sense of pride and belonging and also commitment to teaching profession that their effect will be visible in the educational environments.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • thriving at work
  • teacher's engagement
  • job attitude
  • bootstrapping analysis
ارونسون، الیوت.(1391). روانشناسی اجتماعی، ترجمه: حسین شکرکن، تهران: نشر رشد.
بهارلو. مصطفی، محمودی‌کیا. مریم و احمدی چگنی، سحر.(1392). بررسی رابطه شخصیت پویا با عملکرد شغلی با میانجی گری دگرگون سازی شغل و اشتیاق شغلی در کارکنان دفاتر آژانس های هواپیمایی شهر تهران. مجله روان‌شناسی اجتماعی. 8(28): 53-68.
کریمی، یوسف.(1391). روان‌شناسی اجتماعی. تهران: نشر ارسباران.
مساح. هاجر.(1396). شناسایی و اعتبار‌یابی عوامل موثر بر کامیابی در کار به‌منظور تدوین الگو و سنجش تاثیر مداخله حاصل از الگو. پایان نامه دکترای روانشناسی . دانشکده رواشناسی و علوم تربیتی دانشگاه اصفهان.
Amin Beidokhti, Aliakbar., Fathi, Kourosh., & Moradi, Saeid. (2016). The Structural Relations of Parameters of School-Based Management Based on Decentralization, Responsibility, Participation, Organizational Culture, and Organizational Commitment. Review of European Studies; 8(2) , 159-170.
Bostic, J. H, (2003). Constructive thinking, mental health and physical health, Ph.D. dissertation, Saint Louis University.
Brown, D. and Sargeant, M.A. (2007). Job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and religious commitment of full-time university employees. Journal of Research on Christian Education, 16, 211–241.
Bufquin, D., DiPietro, R., Orlowski, M., & Partlow, C. (2017). The influence of restaurant co-workers’ perceived warmth and competence on employees’ turnover intentions: The mediating role of job attitudes. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 60, 13-22.
Cannata, M., Rubin, M., Goldring, E., Grissom, J. A., Neumerski, C., Drake, T., & Schuermann,P. (2014). Using teacher effectiveness data for information rich hiring. Retrieved from https://my.vanderbilt.edu/marisacannata/ files/2016/04/ Data-use-in-hiring- Revised2-0021816 clean.pdf.
Carmeli, A., & Spreitzer, G. M. (2009). Trust, connectivity, and thriving: Implications for innovative behaviors at work. Journal of Creative Behavior. 43: 169-191.
Carver, C. S. (1998). Resilience and thriving: Issues, models, and linkages. J. Soc. Issues 54: 245–266.
Chaiken, S., & Stangor, C. (1987). Attitudes and attitude change. Annual Review of Psychology,38, 575–630. doi:10.1146/annurev.ps.38.020187.003043.
Chalofsky, N., & Krishna, V. (2009). Meaningfulness, commitment, and engagement: The intersection of a deeper level of intrinsic motivation. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 11, 189–203.
Coladarci, T. (1992). Teachers’ sense of efficacy and commitment to teaching. The Journal of Experimental Education, 60, 323–337.
Cross, R., Baker, W. and Parker, A. (2003). ‘What creates energy in organizations?’, Sloan Management Review, Summer: 51–6.
Dalal, R. S. (2005). A meta-analysis of the relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology,90, 1241–1255. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.90.6.1241
Dalal. Reeshad S. and Crede. Marcus.(2013). APA Handbook of Testing and Assessment in Psychology: Vol. 1. Test Theory and Testing and Assessment in Industrial and Organizational Psychology, K. F. Geisinger (Editor-in-Chief). Chapter37: 675-691.
Day, C. (2000). “Stories of change and professional development: The costs of commitment. In C. Day, A. Fernandez, T. Hauge, & J. Moller (Eds.)”.The Life and Work of Teachers: International Perspectives in Changing Times (pp. 109- 129). London: Falmer Press.
Donaldson, M. L. (2011). Principals’ approaches to hiring, assigning, evaluating, and developing teachers. Education Digest, 76(9), 27-32.
Donaldson, M. L. (2013). Principals’ approaches to cultivating teacher effectives: Constraints and opportunities in hiring, assignment, evaluating, and developed teachers. Educational Administration Quarterly, 49, 838-882. doi:10.1177/0013161X13485961.
Engel, M., & Curran, F. C. (2016). Toward understanding principals’ hiring practices. Journal of Educational Administration, 54, 173-190.
Gedefaw, K. M. (2012). Job satisfaction of secondary school teachers in Ethiopia.(Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of South Africa, South Africa.
Getahun, T., Tefera, B.F., & Burichew, T.(2016). Teacher’s Job Satisfaction And Its Relationship With Organizational Commitment In Ethiopian Primary
Schools: Focus On Primary Schools Of Bonga Town. European Scientific Journal. vol.12, No.13. 380-401.
Griffeth, R. W., Hom, P. W., & Gaertner, S. (2000). A meta-analysis of antecedents and correlates of employee turnover: Update, moderator tests, and research implications for the next millennium. Journal of Management,26, 463–488. doi:10.1177/014920630002600305.
Han, Jiying., Yin, Hongbiao., &Wang. Wenlan.(2016). The effect of tertiary teachers’ goal orientations for teaching on their commitment: the mediating role of teacher engagement. Educational Psychology. 36(3). 526-547.
Hitch, D. Pepin, G,.& Stagnitti. K. (2014), Part Two: The Interdependent Nature of Doing, Being, Becoming, and Belonging. Occupational Therapy In Health Care, Early Online: 1–17.
Jennings, P. A., & Greenberg, M. T. (2009). The Prosocial Classroom: Teacher Social and Emotional Competence in Relation to Student and Classroom Outcomes. Review Of Educational Research, 79, 491-525. doi:10.2307/40071173.
Jones, N., Youngs, P., & Frank, K. (2013). The role of school-based colleagues in shaping the commitment of novice special and general education teachers. Exceptional Children,79, 365-383.
Judge, T. A., Hulin, C. L., & Dalal, R. S. (2012). Job sat-isfaction and job affect. In S. W. J. Kozlowski (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of industrial and organizational psychology(pp. 496–525).New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Judge, T. A., Thoresen, C. J., Bono, J. E., & Patton, G. K. (2001). The job satisfaction–job performance relationship: A qualitative and quantitative review. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 376-407. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.127.3.376.
Karatepe, Osman. M. , Aga, Mehmet.(2016). The effects of organization mission fulfillment and perceived organizational support on job performance: The mediating role of work engagement. International Journal of Bank Marketing. 34(3). 368-387.
Kark, R., & Carmeli, A. (2009). Alive and creating: The mediating role of vitality in the relationship between psychological safety and creative work involvement. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 30(6): 785–804.
Kashdan, T. B, (2002). Social Anxiety Dimensions, Neuroticism, and the contours of positive psychological functioning, Cognitive Therapy and Research. 26: 789-810.
Keyes, C.L.M. (2002). ‘The mental health continuum: From languishing to flourishing in life’, Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 43: 207–22.
Keyes, C.L.M. and Grzywacz, J.G. (2005) ‘Health as a complete state: The added value in work performance and healthcare costs’, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 47 (5): 523–32.
Klassen, R. M., Yerdelen, S., & Durksen, T. L. (2013). Measuring teacher engagement: development of the engaged teachers scale (ETS). Frontline Learning Research, 1(2), 33-52.
Lee, C. C., & Chen, C. J. (2013). The Relationship between Employee Commitment and Job Attitude and Its Effect on Service Quality in the Tourism Industry. American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, 3, 196.
Mahar, A., Cobigo, V., & Stuart, H. (2013) Conceptualizing belonging. Disability and Rehabilitation, 35 (12), 1026-1032.
Malone, G. .Pillow, D. Osman, A. (2012). The General Belongingness Scale (GBS): Assessing achieved belongingness. Personality and Individual Differences ,52, 311-316.
Maslow, A. (1970) Motivation and Personality .New York: Harper Row.
Menguc, B., Auh, S., Fisher, M. and Haddad, A. (2013), “To be engaged or not to be engaged: the antecedents and consequences of service employee engagement”, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 66 No. 11, pp. 2163-2170.
Meyer, John P., Stanley, David J., Herscovitch, Lynne, Topolnytsky, Laryssa. (2002). Affective, Continuance, And Normative Commitment to the Organization: A Meta-Analysis of Antecedents, Correlates, and Consequences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61, 20-27.
Miller, J. B., & Stiver, I. P. (1997). The healing connection: How women form relationships in therapy and in life. Boston: Beacon Press.
Muraven, M, Gagne, M & Rosman, H, (2008). Helpful self-control: Autonomy support, vitality, and depletion, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 44: 573-585.
Nix, G., Ryan, R. M., Manly, J. B., & Deci, E. L. (1999). Revitalization through self-regulation: The effects of autonomous and controlled motivation on happiness and vitality. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 25: 266–284.
Park, I. (2005). Teacher commitment and its effects on student achievement in American high schools. Educational Research and Evaluation, 11, 461–485.
Park, S.Henkin, A. B., & Egley, R. (2005). Teacher team commitment, teamwork, and trust: exploring associations. Journal of Educational Administration, 43(5), 462-479. Pitman Publishing.
Pfeffer, J. (2010). Building sustainable organizations: The human factor. Academy of Management Perspectives. 24: 34–45.
Porath, C., Spreitzer, G; Gibson, C & Garnnet, F.G.(2011). Thriving at work: Toward its measurement, construct validation, and theoretical refinement. Journal of Organizational Behavior, J. Organiz. Behav. Published online in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) DOI: 10.1002/job.756.
Ramlee, N., Osman, A., Salahudin, S. N., Yeng, S. K., Ling, S. C., & Safizal, M. (2016). The Influence of Religiosity, Stress and Job Attitude towards Organizational Behavior: Evidence from Public Universities in Malaysia. Procedia Economics and Finance, 35, 563-573.
Razak, N. A., Darmawan, I. G. N., & Keeves, J. P. (2009). Teacher commitment. In L. J.Saha & A. G. Dworkin (Eds.),International handbook of research on teachers and teaching(pp. 343–360). New York, NY: Springer.
Razak, N. A., Darmawan, I. G. N., & Keeves, J. P. (2010). The influence of culture on teacher commitment. Social Psychology of Education, 13, 185–205.
Rebeiro, K. (2001). Enabling occupation: The importance of an affirming environment. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy ,68(2), 80-89.
Reinhoudt, C. J, (2004). Factor related to aging well: The influence of optimism. hardiness and spiritual well-being on the physical health functioning of older adults, Record of Research, The Ohio state university.
Riketta, M. (2008). The causal relation between job attitudes and performance: a meta-analysis of panel studies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(2), 472.
Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it—Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 5: 1069–1081.
Saks M. (2006) Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Journal of Managerial Psychology. 21(7), 600–619. doi:10.1108/02683940610690169.
Santos, Alda., Chambel, Maria Jos., & Castanheira, Filipa. (2016). Relational job characteristics and nurses’ affective organizational commitment: the mediating role of work engagement. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 72(2), 294–305. doi:10.1111/jan.12834.
Schaufeli W.B. (2013). What is engagement? In Employee Engagement in Theory and Practice (Truss C., Alfes K., Delbridge R., Shantz A. & Soane E., eds), Routledge, London, pp. 15–35.
Schaufeli W.B. & Taris T.W. (2014). A Critical Review of the Job Demands-Resources Model: Implications for Improving Work and Health. In Bridging Occupational, Organizational and
Public Health: A Transdisciplinary Approach (Bauer G.F. & H€ammig O. eds), Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht, Heidelberg New York London, pp. 43–68. doi: 10.1007/978-94- 007-5640-3_4.
Schaufeli W.B. & Bakker A.B. (2004) Job demands, job resources and their relationship with burnout and engagement: a multi sample study. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 25, 293–315. doi:10.1002/job.248.
Schaufeli, W.B., Salanova, M., Gonzales-Roma, V. and Bakker, A.B. (2002), “The measurement of engagement and burnout: a two sample confirmatory factor analytic approach”, Journal of Happiness Studies, Vol. 3 No. 1, pp. 71-92.
Mohamad Tharikh, Shafazawana, & Yeh Ying, Chen. (2016). Managing Job Attitudes: The Roles of Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment on Organizational Citizenship Behaviors. Procedia Economics and Finance . 35 , 604 – 611.
Shuck, B., Nimon, K., & Zigarmi, D. (2016). Untangling the Predictive Nomological Validity of Employee Engagement Decomposing Variance in Employee Engagement Using Job Attitude Measures. Group & Organization Management, 1059601116642364.
Sinha, C., & Kumar, H. (2016). Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence, Work Attitude & Outcomes: Examination of Indian Middle-Managerial Level Employees. Journal of Organizational Psychology, 16(1), 118.
Spreitzer, G., Sutcliffe, K., Dutton, J., Sonenshein, S. and Grant, A.M. (2005). A socially embedded model of thriving at work. Organization Science. 16: 537-549.
Srivastava, A. K. (2008). Effect of Perceived Work Environment on Employees’ Job Behaviour and Organizational Effectiveness. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 34, (1),pp. 47-55.
Subramani, A. K., Jan, N. A., Batcha, H. M., & Vinodh, N. (2016). Use of Structural Equation Modeling to Empirically Study the Impact of Organizational Climate on Employees’ Work Related Attitude in Information Technology Organizations in Chennai City. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 9(2).
Tharikh, S. M., Ying, C. Y., & Saad, Z. M. (2016). Managing Job Attitudes: The Roles of Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment on Organizational Citizenship Behaviors. Procedia Economics and Finance, 35, 604-611.
Thurstone, L. L. (1928). Attitudes can be measured. American Journal of Sociology,33, 529–554. doi:10.1086/214483.
Wang, J. H., Tsai, K. C., Lei, L. J. R., & Lai, S. K. (2016). Relationships among Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and Turnover Intention: Evidence from the Gambling Industry in Macau. Business and Management Studies, 2(1), 104-110.
Wilcock , A.A. (1998) Reflections on doing being and becoming. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy ,65(5), 248-257.
Wilcock, A. A. (2006). An Occupational Perspective of Health. Second Edition New Jersey: Slack.
Wilcock, A. A. (2007). Occupation and health: Are they one and the same? Journal of Occupational Science, 14, 3-8.
Youngs, P., Pogodzinski, B., Grogan, E., & Perrone, F. (2016). Person-organization fit and research on instruction. Educational Researcher, 44(1), 37-45.
Yücel, I. (2012). Examining the Relationships among Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intention: An Empirical Study. International Journal of Business and Management, 7(20). Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v7n20p44.